Now available: Media Ethics: 5th Edition
Closely organized around SPJ's Code of Ethics, this updated edition uses real-life case studies to demonstrate how students and professionals in journalism and other communication disciplines identify and reason through ethical dilemmas.
Ethics Case Studies
– Kobe Bryants Past: A Tweet Too Soon?
– A controversial apology
– Using the Holocaust Metaphor
– Aaargh! Pirates! (and the Press)
– Reigning on the Parade
– Controversy over a Concert
– Deep Throat, and His Motive
– When Sources Wont Talk
– A Suspect Confession
– Whos the Predator?
– The Medias Foul Ball
– Publishing Drunk Drivers Photos
– Naming Victims of Sex Crimes
– A Self-Serving Leak
– The Times and Jayson Blair
– Cooperating with the Government
– Offensive Images
– The Sting
– A Media-Savvy Killer
– A Congressmans Past
– Crafting a Policy
WHAT: John Mark Karr, 41, was arrested in mid-August in Bangkok, Thailand, at the request of Colorado and U.S. officials. During questioning, he confessed to the murder of JonBenet Ramsey, who had been beaten and strangled to death in the basement of her Boulder, Colorado, home sometime during Christmas night 1996. (The murder was a media obsession for much of 1997, and video clips of the young beauty contestant competing in various costumes ran, it seems, every few hours.)
Karr was arrested after Michael Tracey, a journalism professor at the University of Colorado, alerted authorities to information he had drawn from e-mails Karr had sent him over the past four years. Karr had initiated the correspondence, apparently intrigued by Traceys argument, in documentaries and elsewhere, that John and Patsy Ramsey had been unfairly implicated in their daughters death. Karr was returned to Boulder for DNA testing and ultimately cleared. But he wasnt freed; he also faced misdemeanor child pornography charges in California.
WHO: Put yourself in the shoes of a news director or managing editor. Could you resist this story, especially if you were in Colorado? In the first three weeks after Karrs confession, the Rocky Mountain News ran 150 stories about him, including this first-day lead: The decade-long search for JonBenet Ramseys killer came to a startling end in Thailand on Wednesday. The Denver Post probably ran a similar number, but its web site list cuts off after 10 hits. In JonBenets home town of Boulder, the Daily Camera ran 120 stories during the same period.
Or imagine youre Professor Tracey.
The Question: Do you break a confidence with your source if you think it can solve a murder or protect children half a world away?
There are many stakeholders in this case, including the media, Tracey and, of course, Karr himself. Add Boulder law enforcement authorities, who had been criticized for bungling the original case 10 years previously, and now for spending $23,656, including two business-class airfares, to bring a delusional man back to face dubious charges. Ramsey family members are major stakeholders. Even the University of Colorado j-school is among many parties with a peripheral interest.
WHY: The principles involved in deciding what to do include the medias obligations to their readers and viewers to present the news in full while maintaining a sense of responsibility and balance. For Professor Tracey, theres a struggle between confidentiality and collaboration. And should the media be critical of authorities who, after all, pulled Karr away from the temptation of children in Thailand, where he was about to begin a teaching job?
HOW: Weve seen how the media reacted to this story at full throttle. Was it overkill? A bit more skepticism and proportionality would have been more professional. Was Professor Traceys role appropriate? He considers himself an academic, not a journalist. But even if he were a journalist, wrote Rocky Mountain News media columnist David Kopel, he should act like an ethical human being. Kopels argument is worth repeating.
Some critics claim that if journalists cooperate with the police, they will lose the trust of their audience. But just imagine how much less most readers would trust the newspapers if readers learned that a reporter refused to reveal non-confidential information which could have led to the capture of a notorious murderer.
ANALYSIS: Some principles (from the SPJ Code of Ethics), and comment:
Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information. (Quantity, more than quality, is the question.)
Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. (In a highly competitive rush, its difficult but still necessary.)
Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity. (Lurid curiosity is sometimes unavoidable.)
Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges.
Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable.
Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct. (There was plenty of explaining where the information came from, and a flood of letters to the editor.)
SPJ Ethics Committee